Apakah Makanan Kosher?

Definition of Kosher

The Hebrew word ” kosher ” means suitable or appropriate as it relates to Jewish dietary laws. Kosher food is allowed to be eaten and can be used as an ingredient in the production of food supplements.

The basic law comes from the Bible (Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 17). For thousands of years, Rabbinic scholars have interpreted these laws and applied them to contemporary situations. In addition, the Rabbinic body enacted protective laws to safeguard the integrity of halal law.

Kosher Diet Rules and Regulations

Halal law is complex and extensive. The purpose of this guide is to familiarize the reader with some of the basics of kashrut and provide insight into its practical application. Given the complex nature of kosher law, one should consult an Orthodox Rabbi when a problem arises.

Although ancillary hygiene benefits have been associated with the observance of kashrut, its main purpose and rationale is to obey the Divine Will, as stated in the Torah.

Not so long ago, most food products were made in family kitchens, or in factories or small shops in the local community. It is quite easy to ascertain whether the product can be trusted as halal. If Rabbinic supervision is required, it is attended by the Rabbi of the community, who is known to all. Today, industrialization, transcontinental shipping and mass production have created a situation where most of the food we eat is commercially treated, processed, cooked, canned or boxed in industrial settings, which can be hundreds or thousands of miles away from home. .

What adds to the complexity is that it is generally not possible to assess the halal status of an item based on the information provided in the ingredient declaration for various reasons.

First, the product may be made from halal ingredients, but processed on non-halal equipment. Second, the USDA does not require the listing of certain processing aids, such as pan liners and oils that function as release agents. Although not legally classified as an ingredient, these items can still make the product non-halal. Third, many ingredients can be halal or non-halal, depending on their source. For example, glycerin and emulsifiers are made from vegetables (most likely halal) or animal oils (most likely not halal). Finally, many ingredients are listed only in broad terms, without a breakdown of the many complex components that make up the actual item. For example, a chocolate flavor may contain 50 ingredients,

Unless someone is an expert in food production, the average consumer is unlikely to make an assessment of halal status, which is why it is important to buy only products that have the confirmation of a reliable halal certification agency .

Want to Apply for Kosher Certification? Learn how to get certified here

Kosher food

Kosher Meat and Non-Kosher Meat, Chicken and Fish


The Torah states that halal mammals are those that chew the cud (ruminants) and have cloven hooves. The following animal species are considered halal: addax, antelope, bison, cattle, deer, gazelle, giraffe, goat, ibex and sheep. In addition, kosher meat and poultry require special preparation, which will be discussed below.


The Torah does not list specific characteristics to distinguish between permitted and prohibited birds. Instead, it lists 24 species of fowl that are prohibited, while all other birds are considered halal. However, for various reasons, in practice we only eat birds that have an established tradition that the species is halal.

In the United States, the only poultry accepted by mainstream kashrut organizations as halal are chicken, turkey, duck and goose.


The Torah sets two criteria to determine which fish is halal. Fish must have fins and scales. The scales must be easy to remove without damaging the skin. [Generally, scales on kosher fish are either thin, round and smooth-edged (cycloid) or narrow segments similar to the teeth of a comb (ctenoid)]. All shellfish are prohibited. Unlike meat and poultry, fish does not require special preparation. However, the fish scales must be visible to the consumer to determine the halal status of the fish. Therefore, filleted or ground fish should not be bought unless properly supervised, or the fillet should have a skin tab with scales attached to the flesh. Furthermore, buying fish in a non-halal fish shop is problematic – even if the scales are still intact – because the knives and tables are not halal,

Fish and meat cannot be eaten together, but they can be eaten as one dish after another, even at the same meal. To avoid eating them together, one should not use the same plate or cutlery without washing them before one meal and the next. In addition, a person should eat solid food and drink water or drinks in between to clean his mouth of waste.

Processed and smoked fish products require reliable rabbinical supervision, as do all processed foods.

Meat & Poultry Processing

Shechita (Slaughter):

The Torah requires that meat and poultry be slaughtered in a prescribed manner known as shechita . The animal’s trachea and esophagus were severed with a special razor sharp, perfectly smooth, causing immediate and painless death to the animal. Only trained kosher slaughterers ( shochet ), whose piety and expertise have been proven by rabbinic authority, are qualified to slaughter animals for kosher consumption.

Bedika (Examination):

After the animal is properly slaughtered, a trained inspector ( bodek ) examines the internal organs for any physiological abnormalities that may render the animal unhalal ( treif ). The lungs, in particular, must be examined to determine that there is no adhesion ( sirchot ), which may indicate a puncture of the lungs. If an adhesion is found, the bodek must examine it carefully to determine its halal status. It is worth noting that in addition to meeting the requirements of halacha (Jewish law), internal organ bedika insures quality standards that exceed government requirements.

Smooth Kosher:

Although not all adhesions make the animal non-kosher, some Jewish communities or individuals only eat the meat of animals that are found to be free of all adhesions to their lungs. Glatt ” literally means “smooth”, indicating that the meat came from an animal whose lungs were found to be free of all adhesions. Recently, the term ” glatt kosher ” has been used more widely as a generic phrase, implying that the product is kosher without question.

Nikkur (Excising):

In some halal animal species, many blood vessels, nerves and fat lobes are prohibited and must be removed. There is a special cutting procedure for beef, veal and lamb known as nikkur (the Hebrew word for “removing”), which must be performed by specially trained individuals.

Daging Koshering:

The Torah forbids eating animal blood. The two accepted methods of extracting blood from meat, a process referred to as ” kashering “, are either salting or roasting.

Meat should not be placed in warm water until it has been ” kashered “. Once the meat is cooked before kashering, it cannot be made halal.

1. Salting Meat:

The meat must first be soaked for half an hour in cold water (not ice) in a device designated just for that purpose. After letting the excess water drip from the meat, the meat is carefully salted so that the entire surface is covered with a thin layer of salt. Only coarse salt should be used. Both sides of meat and chicken must be salted. All loose parts of the chicken must be removed before the kashering process begins. Each part must be soaked and salted individually.

If the meat or chicken is sliced ​​during the salting process, the newly exposed surface of the cut must now be soaked for half an hour and salted as well.

The salted meat is left for an hour on an inclined or perforated surface to allow the blood to flow down freely. The cavity of the chicken should be placed open, downwards.

After salting the meat must be soaked thoroughly, and then washed thoroughly to remove all the salt used.

According to Jewish law, meat must be kosher within 72 hours of being slaughtered to prevent blood from coagulating. If the meat has been thoroughly marinated before the 72-hour limit, an additional seventy-two hours remain to complete the first step of the salting process.

2. Grilled meat:

An alternative way to ” kasher ” meat is through grilling. The liver can only be washed through roasting, because there is a lot of blood in it.

Both the liver and meat must first be thoroughly washed to remove all surface blood. They are then lightly salted on all sides. After that, it is specially roasted on a perforated grate where the liver is heated over an open flame, which draws out the internal blood. When straining the liver, a split must be made in the liver before roasting.

Meat or liver must be grilled on both sides until the outer surface looks dry and brown. After roasting, the meat or liver is rinsed.

Kosher Seller:

Last year, the salting of meat and chicken was done at the consumer’s home. Recently, halal butchers do salting in butcher shops. Today, the entire process of slaughtering, bedika , nikkur and salting has shifted to the slaughterhouse. This allows for uniform consistency of high standards. Nevertheless, halal butchers play an important role in distributing products. The butcher must be a person of integrity and the shop must be under reliable Rabbinic supervision.

Meat Packaging:

From the moment of slaughter, halal meat and poultry must be properly supervised until it reaches the consumer. A metal tag called plumba , bearing the halal symbol is often affixed to meat or poultry to serve as an identifying supervisory seal. Alternatively, the meat or chicken is packed in tamper-proof packaging with the halal logo clearly displayed.

Kos Daging Kosher:

Because kosher meat and poultry have many processing requirements ( shechita , bedika nikkur and salting), which must be performed by specially trained individuals, the labor costs associated with kosher meat and poultry are greater. This contributes to the higher cost of kosher meat and poultry.

Kosher Caterers, Kosher Restaurants & Hotels

Caterers, restaurants and hotels must be supervised by a reputable Orthodox Rabbinic authority.

It cannot be assumed that kashrut is maintained just because the halal impression is created by advertisements or by statements, such as, “we serve halal customers.” Often, ‘vegetarian’ or ‘dairy’ restaurants are assumed to be halal and beyond the need for supervision. Unfortunately, this is a common misconception. Fish, baked goods, cheese, shortening, oil, eggs, margarine, dressings and seasonings are among the many food items that require supervision in ‘vegetarian’ and ‘dairy’ restaurants. Even food items that are halal in their raw state can become non-halal when prepared on equipment used for non-halal food. For this reason, reputable halal supervision is required.

Meat and Dairy in the Kosher Kitchen

The Torah prohibits: 1) cooking meat and milk together in any form; 2) eat the product so cooked, or 3) derive benefit from it. As a safeguard, the Rabbis extended this prohibition to not allow eating meat and dairy products at the same meal or preparing them on the same utensils. Furthermore, dairy products should not be consumed after eating meat, for a period of time. There are different traditions for how long to wait between meat and dairy, but the most common custom is to wait six hours.

Meat can be eaten along with dairy products with the one exception of hard cheese aged 6 months or older, which requires the same waiting time as dairy after meat. Before eating meat after dairy, one must eat solid food, either drink liquid or rinse the mouth thoroughly, and check hand hygiene.

A. Equipment:

Unless a vegetarian is completely excluded from his kitchen, a kosher kitchen must have two different sets of utensils, one for meat and poultry and another for dairy foods. There must be separate and distinct sets of pots, pans, plates and silverware.

B. Washing the Dishes:

Ideally, it is better to have two kitchen sinks, one for meat and one for dairy. If this is not feasible, and one uses one sink for both meat and dairy, dishes and utensils should be placed and washed on the rack, so as not to touch the sink. Separate shelves will be used for meat and dairy consumption. Care must be taken to ensure that water should not be allowed to rise to shelf level, and dishes should not soak in sinks used for both dairy and meat.


Eggs (or other byproducts) of non-halal birds or fish are not halal. Therefore, caviar must come from halal fish and this requires reliable supervision. Commercial liquid eggs also require supervision. Kosher chicken eggs containing blood spots must be discarded, and therefore the eggs should be inspected before use.

Shortening and Oil:

Government regulations on food labeling have undergone strict changes. The label must not only state the type of shortening, i.e., vegetable or animal, but it must declare the actual source as well. Therefore, it is common to find mention of cottonseed oil, lard, coconut oil, and other oil sources. The result of displaying this explicit label is that users can easily detect what is clearly not halal. However, it is important to know that the kosher status of products containing pure vegetable shortening can only be confirmed by a reliable halal certification.. The reason is that vegetable shortening manufacturers often process animal fat on regular equipment. Pure vegetable products may meet USDA guidelines for purity, however, in terms of Jewish law, vegetable oils may not be kosher because they are processed on non-kosher equipment.


Emulsifiers are complex substances used in many types of food production. They can perform several critical functions, among them acting as surfactants (reducing the surface tension of liquids) thereby making oils and water soluble. Emulsifiers are an important component in many foods, such as margarine, shortening, cream filling, toppings, coffee creamers, whiteners, prepared cake mixes, doughnuts, puddings, ice creams, frozen desserts, instant mashed potatoes, peanut butter, breakfast cereals , chocolate and sweets. Emulsifiers may be listed on ingredient labels as polysorbates, glycerides, mono and diglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, etc. Emulsifiers are produced from either animal or vegetable oils, and emulsifiers require reliable halal supervision.


A critical sector of the food industry is flavor manufacturers. Flavors, whether artificial or natural, are a component of almost every product. Flavor production is very complex and uses raw materials from every source imaginable. Some common kosher sensitive ingredients used in flavors are fusel oil (which may be extracted from grape juice), glycerin and castorium (otter extract). Since ingredient declarations never include the breakdown of ingredients used in flavors, food items containing natural or artificial flavors require reliable oversight.

Filling and Cream:

All fillings, creams and fudge bases must be certified halal as they may contain fats, emulsifiers, gelatin stabilizers and flavourings.

Breads, Rolls, Challah , Bagels and Bialy

Ruji rumah asas ini menimbulkan beberapa masalah halal dan memerlukan pensijilan halal.

Banyak jenis roti dibuat dengan minyak dan pemendekan. Bahan asas adunan doh yang disediakan khas dan perapi doh ialah pemendekan dan di-gliserida. Di kedai roti, kuali dan palung di mana doh diletakkan untuk mengembang dan untuk dibakar disalut dengan minyak gris atau pembahagi, yang mungkin tidak halal. Minyak ini selalunya tidak muncul pada label. Mungkin juga terdapat isu produk bukan halal lain yang disediakan dan dibakar pada peralatan yang sama. Ini adalah beberapa sebab roti memerlukan pengawasan yang halal.

Ia dilarang oleh Rabbinya untuk menghasilkan roti menggunakan bahan tenusu. Oleh kerana roti sering dimakan pada semua hidangan, para Rabbi bimbang bahawa seseorang mungkin secara tidak sengaja makan roti tenusu dengan hidangan daging. Terdapat dua pengecualian – jika roti dibakar dalam bentuk atau reka bentuk yang luar biasa yang menunjukkan bahawa ia adalah tenusu, atau jika roti itu sangat kecil sehingga boleh dimakan pada satu hidangan.

Undang-undang Yahudi menghendaki bahawa sebahagian daripada adunan atau produk bakar siap diketepikan untuk apa yang dikenali sebagai “ challah ”’. Walaupun mana-mana bahagian saiz adalah mencukupi untuk challah, adalah kebiasaan untuk memisahkan bahagian saiz zaitun. Selepas pemisahan, challah dibakar. Ritual ini diwajibkan hanya apabila pemilik doh pada masa penyediaannya adalah orang Yahudi, dan doh dibuat daripada tepung daripada mana-mana lima biji berikut: gandum, oat, rai, ejaan, dan barli. Selain itu, tiada keperluan untuk mengasingkan challah jika adunan mengandungi kurang daripada 2-1/2 paun tepung. Jika adunan mengandungi sekurang-kurangnya 5 paun tepung, keberkatan dibaca sebelum memisahkan challah .

Jika mitzvah ini belum dilakukan di kedai roti, ia boleh dilakukan di rumah dengan meletakkan semua barang yang dibakar di dalam satu bilik, membuka semua bahan yang dibungkus tertutup, dan mengambil sekeping kecil dari mana-mana barang yang dibakar dan membakarnya.

Kek, Pastri dan Donat

Produk ini biasanya mengandungi pemendekan, pengemulsi, perisa dan bahan sensitif halal yang lain, dan oleh itu penyeliaan yang boleh dipercayai adalah perlu.

Produk tenusu

A. Susu:

Undang-undang Rabbinik memerlukan pengawasan semasa proses memerah susu untuk memastikan sumber susu adalah daripada haiwan yang halal. Mengikut pendapat banyak pihak berkuasa rabbi, dasar OU ialah di Amerika Syarikat, peraturan dan kawalan Jabatan Pertanian cukup ketat untuk memastikan hanya susu lembu dijual secara komersial. Keperluan kerajaan ini memenuhi keperluan Rabbikal untuk penyeliaan. Walau bagaimanapun, sesetengah individu lebih ketat dan hanya mengambil susu yang dihasilkan dengan pengawasan sepenuh masa. Ini dikenali sebagai cholov yisroel .

B. Keju:

Semua keju memerlukan pensijilan halal, termasuk keju keras (Swiss, cheddar, dll.) dan keju lembut (kotej, petani, periuk dan keju krim). Rennet, yang diproses daripada perut anak lembu yang belum dicerai susu , sering digunakan dalam penghasilan keju keras sebagai agen pengental dan pembekuan. Keju keras kosher dihasilkan dengan rennet mikrob, yang diperoleh daripada sumber halal. Oleh kerana keju keras biasanya dibuat dengan rennet haiwan, orang bijak Rabbinik menetapkan bahawa walaupun rennet haiwan tidak digunakan, penyelia sepenuh masa mesti hadir untuk menjamin integriti halal produk. Keju keras yang dihasilkan dengan bahan kosher dan penyelia sepenuh masa dikenali sebagai gevinat yisroel .

Keju lembut mungkin mengandungi budaya dan perisa yang tidak halal. Memandangkan produk ini dipasteurisasi, integriti peralatan juga menjadi isu.

Makanan Pareve

Kata adjektif ‘ pareve ‘ bermaksud bahawa bahan makanan tidak mengandungi bahan tenusu atau daging, dan ia tidak diproses dengan haba pada peralatan tenusu atau daging. Makanan pareve adalah neutral dan boleh dimakan dengan daging atau makanan tenusu.


Dasar OU ialah tenusu atau barangan daging masing-masing dilabel OU-D dan OU Dairy atau OU Meat. Item yang berlabel OU tanpa akhiran boleh diandaikan sebagai pareve. Walau bagaimanapun, kami mengesyorkan agar anda menyemak bahan-bahan yang disenaraikan pada label, kerana pada masa yang jarang berlaku, OU-D secara tidak sengaja ditinggalkan.


Mengikut piawaian kerajaan, mana-mana produk berlabel ‘serbet’ atau ‘serbet buah’ mesti mengandungi susu dan, oleh itu, bukan pareve. Ais air mungkin pareve atau tenusu, yang akan ditunjukkan dalam sebutan OU.


Marjerin mengandungi minyak dan gliserida dan memerlukan pensijilan rabbinik. Selain itu, marjerin mungkin mengandungi sehingga 12% bahan tenusu, dan oleh itu sesetengah marjerin adalah OU Dairy manakala yang lain adalah pareve.

Krimer Bukan Tenusu

Banyak krimer bukan tenusu, sebenarnya, tenusu dan mempunyai OU-D. Kerajaan memerlukan krimer dilabel “bukan tenusu” jika derivatif susu digunakan dan bukannya susu keseluruhan.

Makanan Semulajadi dan Kesihatan

Dengan percambahan apa yang dipanggil “Semulajadi” atau “Tulen” dan produk makanan kesihatan yang dipromosikan serupa di Amerika Syarikat, beberapa penjelasan adalah teratur berkenaan dengan status kashrutnya. Terdapat tanggapan yang salah bahawa produk semula jadi sememangnya halal. Malah, semua makanan bukan halal adalah semula jadi, dan oleh itu semula jadi tidak mempunyai kaitan dengan status halal.

Wain dan Produk Anggur

Semua jus anggur, wain anggur atau brendi mesti disediakan di bawah pengawasan Rabbinik Ortodoks yang ketat. Sebaik sahaja wain kosher telah dimasak, tiada sekatan dikenakan pada pengendaliannya. Produk sedemikian biasanya dilabelkan ” mevushal “.

Jem anggur (dihasilkan daripada pulpa anggur) serta semua jenis jem dan jeli memerlukan pengawasan kerana ia mungkin diproses pada peralatan bukan halal dan mungkin mengandungi bahan tambahan bukan halal.

Jeli anggur dihasilkan daripada jus anggur dan boleh digunakan hanya apabila dihasilkan daripada jus anggur halal di bawah pengawasan yang betul.

Perisa anggur asli dan tiruan tidak boleh digunakan melainkan diperakui halal Banyak perisa anggur mengandungi ekstrak anggur asli dan dilabelkan tiruan atau tiruan kerana bahan tambahan perasa lain digunakan dalam formula.

Liqueur memerlukan pengawasan kerana perasa yang digunakan dalam produk ini. Di samping itu, asas alkohol mungkin berasal dari wain.


Bagi ahli perniagaan atau pelancong yang melancong ke seluruh Amerika Syarikat, produk yang diperakui halal boleh didapati hampir di mana-mana, walaupun di kedai runcit terkecil di bandar paling terpencil. Walau bagaimanapun, adalah lebih sukar untuk mendapatkan produk yang diperakui halal yang boleh dipercayai di kebanyakan negara asing.

Pengembara yang membawa makan malam beku (TV) yang hanya tersedia ketuhar bukan halal untuk dipanaskan semula, boleh menggunakan ketuhar dengan menutup bungkusan beku dengan dua lapisan kerajang aluminium. Jika ketuhar gelombang mikro akan digunakan, maka makanan juga mesti dibalut dua kali. Makanan halal harus dipesan lebih awal apabila melakukan perjalanan dengan kapal terbang, kereta api atau kapal. Makanan ini juga dipanaskan dalam ketuhar bukan halal. Pekerja pengangkut diarahkan untuk memanaskan makanan ini dengan cara yang sama seperti yang diterima; benar-benar dibalut dengan kerajang berganda dengan meterai katering dan meterai pensijilan Rabbinic utuh. Pengembara boleh memastikan dengan meterai yang utuh bahawa makan malam tidak diganggu. Mana-mana makan malam, yang tidak dimeterai dengan betul, tidak boleh dimakan. Pensijilan halal only applies to food in sealed packages.

Any other food (rolls, wine or liquor, cheese and coffee creamer or snacks) served loosely by the carrier is not included in the halal certification, unless it is sealed and has its own separate certification.